Candis from the Malang Area, East Java
high-definition creative commons photographs from Candis Kidal, Singosari, Badut, Sumberawan, Songgoriti, and statues of Ken Dedes and King Kertanagara, dating to the 13th century in the Malang area of East Java together with further information.
Candi Kidal is one of the most important temples in East Java, and was built in 1248 CE. It was erected as a memorial for King Anuspati of the Singhasari Kingdom, and originally had a statue showing the king as Śiva in the inner sanctum, but this has now disappeared. The temple structure shows a transitional stage between the temples of Central Java to the classic temples of East Java.
The temple is situated in an enclosure, around 44x33m, and the temple itself is around 8m sq. and 15 metres high, and is built of andesite stone. The depictions of Garuda at the temple were the model for the National Emblem. At the four quarters there are kāla statues protecting the monument. The staircase leading to the sanctum has two fine makara heads. There is some fine decorative carving on the walls around the temple.
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National Emblem of Indonesia
The motto means: Unity in Diversity
drawn by Gunawan Kartapranata
licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
The Singosari Temple is situated in the old capital, lying around 8 km north of Malang. In architectural style it is simpler than many seen from this period, and has a certain austerity. It is believed to have been built by King Kertanagara, the last of the Singhasari lineage. It stands in an enclosure around 35m sq. and the temple's dimensions are 14m sq, and 15m high. Unusually there are no makara guarding the staircase. The kāla above the doorways are also unusual in their simplicity. The famous Prajñāpāramitā statue in the National Museum, which is also now symbolic of the city of Malang, was found at Singosari; as were the important Gajah Mada and Jeru-Jeru inscriptions, the first commemorating a building of a cetiya in honour of Kertanagara, and the second an exemption from tax.
This is another early and important temple, though exact dating has proved difficult. It shares some features with Central Javanese temples, which means it is probably early in construction. The temple is also known as the Liswa temple, after the King Gajayana, but the connection between the king and the temple seems tenuous. The base of the building is around 19x14m sq. and it is about 12m high. It contains an inner sanctum which has a yoni and linga, but the roof is missing. There are niches inside the sanctum, but no statues. Unfortunately, in this case, there is a lot of graffiti on the walls, and even on the linga. On the outer walls there are also niches, but only one broken Durga Mahisasuramardini statue is left. Many of the stones show floral patterns. The Dinoyo inscription, which was found here, and which gives important historical information about the early dynasties, is now in the National Museum in Jakarta.
This candi is stūpa standing on a small square plinth, situated about 6km from the Singosari temple. The stūpa is made from andesite stone, as are most of the temples in these regions. It is possibly from the late Singhasari period, or maybe the early Majapahit, and is apparently the only stūpa in East Java. The stūpa itself is quite plain, and does not appear to have contained relics, which is unusual. It also did not have an umbrella over it, as far as can be told from the remains. There is a heap of stones some metres away from the stūpa itsef, though what the building was is not clear. The setting near the stūpa is now a picnic area, and there is a reservoir nearby.
This is a small candi in Batu, a popular resort outside Malang, and is close to the hot springs. There is a well at the back of the candi, and a small area for offerings. Because of the design it is also thought to be quite early, and was probably a Buddhist temple, though now there are remains of Hindu sculptures at the place.
Ken Dedes was a semi-lengendary princess and the wife of Ken Angrok, the founder of the Singhasari dynasty. It is believed that the famous Prajñāpāramitā statue, now in the National Museum, was based on the likeness of Ken Dedes herself, and was made as a commemaration. There is an outsize copy of this statue in a municipal park in Malang, which seems to act as an icon of the city. I am unsure how the Wadu Gede is connected to Ken Dedes, but it bears her name.
Joko Dolog (King Kertanagara)
The last of the materials gathered here belong to a small park around the massive Joko Dolog statue, which itself is believed to be in the form of King Kertanagara, the last King of the Singhasari kingdom. It was made in 1289, and has a very fine inscription in Sanskrit running round its base, which gives important information about the old kingdoms of East Java. It is unclear to me where the other statues, lingas and reliefs were found, and what their relationship is to the main statue, if any. The statue is now in the suburbs of Surabaya, the capital of East Java.
Photographs by Anandajoti Bhikkhu
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