Candis and Sites around Trowulan

high-definition creative commons photographs from the ancient capital of Majapahit, the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Java together with further information.

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Trowulan (Wilwatikta), the Capital of the Majapahit Kingdom

The area now known as Trowulan is the site of the capital of the Majapahit Kingdom (13th-15th centuries), at which time it was known as Wilwatikta. The area contains many candis, archeological sites, and a museum, all of which are represented here; and also tombs and memorials, which I will feature in a separate album.

One of the most important historical sources for the kingdom is the Nagarakretagama, a 14th century Old Javanese poem, which glorified the then King, Hayam Wuruk, and describes the royal and religious life of the capital and its king. A lot of what we know about the kingdom comes from decriptions contained in this poem.

Candi Brahu

The architectural features would seem to suggest that Candi Brahu was once a Buddhist temple, though there is no statuary or relief work to confirm it. It is probably the work of the 14th or 15th century, and is one of only a few temples in Trowulan still standing.

The temple faces west, and the base is around 22x18m and is approx. 20m tall. A noticeable feature of the building is its waist-like curvature in the body of the structure. Like many of the candis it is situated in a very well-kept garden, and is one of the sites visited by children learning about the history of this ancient East Javan kingdom.

01 View from Front, Candi Brahu

01 View from Front, Candi Brahu

02 View from Side, Candi Brahu

02 View from Side, Candi Brahu

03 View from Behind, Candi Brahu

03 View from Behind, Candi Brahu

04 View from Side, Candi Brahu

04 View from Side, Candi Brahu

05 Parents and Children, Candi Brahu

05 Parents and Children, Candi Brahu

06 Well-Kept Gardens, Candi Brahu

06 Well-Kept Gardens, Candi Brahu

07 Stupa Arrangment, Candi Brahu

07 Stupa Arrangment, Candi Brahu

08 Cactus, Candi Brahu

08 Cactus, Candi Brahu

09 Rooster, Candi Brahu

09 Rooster, Candi Brahu

010 Temple Tree, Candi Brahu

010 Temple Tree, Candi Brahu

011 Mojo Fruit, Candi Brahu

011 Mojo Fruit, Candi Brahu

 

Panoramas

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Candi Bajang Ratu

This is a very well preserved gateway to the south-east of the ancient city. It is sometimes referred to as a temple, but this is evidently incorrect. Exactly what the gate might have led into is not clear, though it has been suggested that it may have been a palace gate. It is protected with kala reliefs, and there is some rather fine brick decoration. The stairway itself is made of stone, not brick. It is around 16m high, and around 6m sq.

012 Front View, Candi Bajang Ratu

012 Front View, Candi Bajang Ratu

013 From a Distance, Candi Bajang Ratu

013 From a Distance, Candi Bajang Ratu

014 Gateway View, Candi Bajang Ratu

014 Gateway View, Candi Bajang Ratu

015 Brickwork, Candi Bajang Ratu

015 Brickwork, Candi Bajang Ratu

016 Brickwork, Close-Up, Candi Bajang Ratu

016 Brickwork, Close-Up, Candi Bajang Ratu

017 From the Side, Candi Bajang Ratu

017 From the Side, Candi Bajang Ratu

018 Looking Up, Candi Bajang Ratu

018 Looking Up, Candi Bajang Ratu

019 Grounds, Candi Bajang Ratu

019 Grounds, Candi Bajang Ratu

Candi Wingin Lawang

This is another gateway that has been preserved from the ancient city. It differs from Candi Bajang Ratu in having no roof over the stairway, which probably indicates that it was an outer gate, rather than an inner one. The building stands at around 15m tall, and is 13x11m at the base. There are no reliefs found on this building, though there are niches marked out, which might have been intended for such.

020 Side View, Wingin Lawang

020 Side View, Wingin Lawang

021 Side View, Wingin Lawang

021 Side View, Wingin Lawang

022 Gateway Exit, Wingin Lawang

022 Gateway Exit, Wingin Lawang

023 Close Up, Wingin Lawang

023 Close Up, Wingin Lawang

024 Lawn and Trees, Wingin Lawang

024 Lawn and Trees, Wingin Lawang

025 Garden, Wingin Lawang

025 Garden, Wingin Lawang

026 Name, Wingin Lawang

026 Name, Wingin Lawang

Candi Tikus

This appears to have been a cermonial bathing place, having a tank, with what seems to have been a temple set inside. It is believed to have been built around the 13th-14th centuries. There is a staircase leading down to the tank on the northern side of the structure. The outer walls are around 28m sqare, and the main temple-like building is approx 7m sq. Although this is mainly a brick-built structure, it does have some stome work as decoration. The main tower in the temple is incomplete and reaches only to 2m at present. It is surrounded by eight other and smaller towers.

027 General View, Candi Tikus

027 General View, Candi Tikus

028 Temple View, Candi Tikus

028 Temple View, Candi Tikus

029 Side View, Candi Tikus

029 Side View, Candi Tikus

030 Gardens, Candi Tikus

030 Gardens, Candi Tikus

031 Gardens, Candi Tikus

031 Gardens, Candi Tikus

Museum Mojopahit

The museum was closed on the days we visited and so I have no photographs of the extensive collection inside the building. Numerous artefacts are kept outside the building, including inscriptions, reliefs and statues in various conditions, the provenance of most is not properly identified.

032 Artefacts, Museum Mojopahit

032 Artefacts, Museum Mojopahit

033 Inscriptions, Museum Mojopahit

033 Inscriptions, Museum Mojopahit

034 Various Reliefs, Museum Mojopahit

034 Various Reliefs, Museum Mojopahit

035 Date Plaques, Museum Mojopahit

035 Date Plaques, Museum Mojopahit

036 Kala, Museum Mojopahit

036 Kala, Museum Mojopahit

037 Kala, Museum Mojopahit

037 Kala, Museum Mojopahit

038 Decoration, Museum Mojopahit

038 Decoration, Museum Mojopahit

039 Old Javanese Inscription, Museum Mojopahit

039 Old Javanese Inscription, Museum Mojopahit

040 Broken Inscription, Museum Mojopahit

040 Broken Inscription, Museum Mojopahit

041 Linga and Yoni, Museum Mojopahit

041 Linga and Yoni, Museum Mojopahit

042 Linga and Yoni, Museum Mojopahit

042 Linga and Yoni, Museum Mojopahit

043 Relief, Woman and Houses, Museum Mojopahit

043 Relief, Woman and Houses, Museum Mojopahit

044 Relief, Town Scene, Museum Mojopahit

044 Relief, Town Scene, Museum Mojopahit

045 Relief, Trees and Buildings, Museum Mojopahit

045 Relief, Trees and Buildings, Museum Mojopahit

046 Relief, Woman and Child, Museum Mojopahit

046 Relief, Woman and Child, Museum Mojopahit

047 Relief, Countryside, Museum Mojopahit

047 Relief, Countryside, Museum Mojopahit

048 Relief, Man near River, Museum Mojopahit

048 Relief, Man near River, Museum Mojopahit

049 Relief, Countryside, Museum Mojopahit

049 Relief, Countryside, Museum Mojopahit

050 Relief, Fields and Mountains, Museum Mojopahit

050 Relief, Fields and Mountains, Museum Mojopahit

051 Relief, Woman and Child, Museum Mojopahit

051 Relief, Woman and Child, Museum Mojopahit

052 Relief, Houses near River, Museum Mojopahit

052 Relief, Houses near River, Museum Mojopahit

053 Relief, Couple at Home, Museum Mojopahit

053 Relief, Couple at Home, Museum Mojopahit

054 Relief, Mountains and Trees, Museum Mojopahit

054 Relief, Mountains and Trees, Museum Mojopahit

055 Woman and Child in Landscape, Museum Mojopahit

055 Woman and Child in Landscape, Museum Mojopahit

056 Kala Pillar, Museum Mojopahit

056 Kala Pillar, Museum Mojopahit

057 Kala Pillar, Museum Mojopahit

057 Kala Pillar, Museum Mojopahit

058 Kala Pillar, Museum Mojopahit

058 Kala Pillar, Museum Mojopahit

059 Kala Pillar, Museum Mojopahit

059 Kala Pillar, Museum Mojopahit

060 Decoration, Museum Mojopahit

060 Decoration, Museum Mojopahit

Archeaological Sites around Trowulan

There are numerous archaeological sites around the ancient capital, which normally consist of covered areas, with excavtions areas inside. Two of the sites we visited are pictured below, including some fairly extensive remains. Other sites were less notable.

061 Under the Hanger, Situs Sumur Upas

061 Under the Hanger, Situs Sumur Upas

062 View of Site, Situs Sumur Upas

062 View of Site, Situs Sumur Upas

063 Children walking through Site, Situs Sumur Upas

063 Children walking through Site, Situs Sumur Upas

064 Temple Foundation, Situs Sumur Upas

064 Temple Foundation, Situs Sumur Upas

065 Excavations, Situs Sumur Upas

065 Excavations, Situs Sumur Upas

066 Excavations, Situs Sumur Upas

066 Excavations, Situs Sumur Upas

067 Excavations, Situs Sumur Upas

067 Excavations, Situs Sumur Upas

068 Excavations, Situs Sumur Upas

068 Excavations, Situs Sumur Upas

069 Excavations, Situs Sumur Upas

069 Excavations, Situs Sumur Upas

070 Altar in the Ruins, Situs Sumur Upas

070 Altar in the Ruins, Situs Sumur Upas

071 Gardens, Situs Sumur Upas

071 Gardens, Situs Sumur Upas

072 Umpak in Grounds, Situs Sumur Upas

072 Umpak in Grounds, Situs Sumur Upas

073 Umpak, Wooden Pillar Holder, Situs Sumur Upas

073 Umpak, Wooden Pillar Holder, Situs Sumur Upas

074 Hanger, Situs Gentong

074 Hanger, Situs Gentong

075 Hanger from Front, Situs Gentong

075 Hanger from Front, Situs Gentong

076 Excavations, Situs Gentong

076 Excavations, Situs Gentong

077 Excavations, Situs Gentong

077 Excavations, Situs Gentong

078 Excavations, Situs Gentong

078 Excavations, Situs Gentong

 

Photographs by Anandajoti Bhikkhu

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